By: Angkasa Putra, B.App.Fish., IPP., CPGAM.*
The Indonesian fishing industry consistently and continuously experiences improvement and progress. This is accompanied by an increasing population, an increasing number of consumers, and the higher technology applied in the field.
The Indonesian fishing industry consistently and continuously experiences improvement and progress. This is accompanied by an increasing population, and increasing number of consumers, and the higher technology applied in the field.
The next fact that we cannot deny and should be the subject of reflection and devotion is that this country we love, Indonesia, has been named the largest maritime-based archipelagic country in the world. In addition, it has the longest coastline that occupies the second position below Canada.
The country, which was once thick with the name ‘Nusantara’, seems to have a hunk of paradise, especially in the marine and fisheries sector. With the area of these waters and different levels of depth, of course, Indonesia has a variety of superior potentials, with a varied, unique, and superior ecosystem of marine fishery resources.
On the one hand, we know the term maritime and marine economic potential, which is closely related to coastal narratives and aims to strengthen, develop, and build the Indonesian economy.
“As for what is included in Indonesia’s maritime and marine economic sector, it consists of 11 points: capture fisheries, aquaculture, fisheries, and marine products processing industry, marine biotechnology industry, energy and mineral resources, marine tourism, marine transportation, forestry, small islands area resources, maritime industry and services, and unconventional natural resources.”
Referring to Media Investor data, the potential economic value of the 11 sectors reach US $ 1.5 trillion per year, and the newly utilized ones are around 25%.
The 11 sectors above can be developed according to their respective goals, and of course, have one common path, namely advancing and prospering the Indonesian nation. However, other than these 11 sectors, it is the aquaculture sector that can be a ‘caretaker’ or ‘savior’ and has the potential to be developed in order to increase Indonesia’s economic value with a noble goal for progress and prosperity.
The reason is, as a strategic geographical country, Indonesia’s aquaculture production potential is also the largest in the world and has the opportunity to continue to be developed throughout the year optimally.
In 2016, the total world fishery production 2014 reached 158 million tons, 44.1% of which was produced in the aquaculture sector. Almost 60% of these aquaculture activities are carried out in freshwater cultivation, and 88% of all aquaculture production comes from Asia. Indonesia produces about 17.22 million tons of fresh, brackish, and marine water.
Furthermore, based on data from the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries of the Republic of Indonesia (KKP RI) for 2021, in 2010 aquaculture production exceeded the production of capture fisheries.
Until 2019 aquaculture has contributed around 68.40% of Indonesia’s total fishery production, with an average growth of 16% per year during 2000-2019. In the previous data, aquaculture production increased from 994,962 tons (2000) to 1.4 million tons (2004), or an increase of 10.36% per year (Central Research Institute for Aquaculture).
In 2018 Indonesia’s aquaculture production included seaweed of 16,114,991 tons contributed by the top nine species: tilapia (25.84%), pangasius (11.18%), catfish (17.29%), carp (9.93%), goramy (2.96%), snapper (0.14%), grouper (0.39%), milkfish (10.08%), and shrimp (14.19%).
In 2022, KKP RI re-released the latest data related to the total potential area of aquaculture land of 17.91 million hectares consisting of freshwater aquaculture potential of 2.83 million hectares (15.80%), brackish water of 2.96 million hectares (16.50%), and marine of 12.12 million hectares (67.70%), and is estimated to have an economic value of USD 250 billion per year.
The targets in 2022: fish: 7.35 million tons, shrimp: 1.34 million tons, ornamental fish: 2.1 million fish, seaweed: 11.85 million tons, and Fish Farmer Exchange Index: 103.
“On the one hand, coronation was the 2nd largest aquaculture producer in the world has been from 2009, as well as in 2019 according to FAO 2021, where it ranks in the top 10 Global Aquaculture Producers with a value of 15,893,400 tons; 13.23%, after China which came in first (68,423,859 tons; 56.97%), and India in 3rd place (7,800,300 tons; 6.49%).”
Recently, KKP RI conveyed to the public that now Indonesia through KKP RI has built the largest modern shrimp pond in Indonesia and international standards.
This shrimp farming pond located in Kebumen, Central Java is designed with an area-approach. This shrimp pond is a pioneer in the development of environmentally sound aquaculture, increasing production value in the economy, and a place for work for local residents.
In terms of numbers, the area is 60 hectares and the plan is to continue to increase to 100 hectares, 149 plots/ponds, and 125-250 shrimp/m2 which is projected to be able to produce 40 tons/hectare in a year, as well as absorb about 300 workers.
For additional information, shrimp is one of the leading commodities in the global market besides lobster, crab, and seaweed.
On the other hand, I once wrote an article with the title Great Opportunity for Indonesia to Become a Major Player in the Shrimp World (2022). The narrative is based on the volume of shrimp exports with a significant pattern of increase. It is known that the contribution of shrimp export value to the value of fishery exports reached 36.27% (2012-2018) while for 2015-2019 the export trend experienced an increase in the volume of 4.21%.
“Volume shrimp exports were around 162,256 tons (2015), 197,430 tons (USD 1.74 billion) in 2018, and 517,397 tons (production value USD 2.47 billion) in 2019. Data Research & Markets 2021, the international shrimp market is valued at USD 39.24 million (2019) which is projected to grow 1.50% per year with a volume of 4.2 million MT in 2019 and is targeted to continue to grow with an estimated 1.40% per year.”
The dunia market is estimated to require 13-15 million tons of shrimp supply per year with a supply that has been met based on 2017 data of 8.77 million tons and dominated by the aquaculture sector of 6.09 million tons.
Furthermore, citing data from the International Trade Center 2019, the contribution of the export value of Indonesian shrimp products in 2018 to the total value of the world shrimp exports reached 6.84% and occupied the 5th largest position in the world after India (18.63%), Ecuador (12.96%), Vietnam (12.75%), and China (9.01%).
With the area of newly utilized aquaculture land still low, and the world’s demand for shrimp being very large, Indonesia has the potential to become the world’s main supplier of shrimp.
“In addition, the development of science through the path of scientific research/studies, and the world of education must continue to be echgoing (consistent and continuous). KKP RI also has a big target in increasing shrimp production by 250% by 2024 (1,290,000 tons with a production value of USD 6.15 billion).”
Based on several scientific sources and literature reviews that have been previously mentioned and as a person who has an aquaculture background, the author draws a conclusion that Indonesia has now blazed a path to the world’s aquaculture giants.
Large, potential, environmentally friendly, and sustainable aquaculture refers to the concept of a blue economy. So that the mindset and implementation on the ground must be appropriate and in line, so that the narratives are related to the giant who is napping can disappear with the positive progress that continues to be echoed now.
Of course, elements of the government, researchers, academia, practitioners, society, and related elements must work together to realize this glorious dream.
Angkasa Putra, B.App.Fish., IPP., CPGAM.
M.Sc Student at College of Fisheries Science, Pukyong
National University, Busan, Republic of Korea
Telp. (WA): +62 813-6883-2718