The Shrimp Book II

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This new volume of The Shrimp Book is complementary to the first, bringing together new knowledge, new technologies, new perspectives and new ideas from 98 international authors, from both academia and industry.

While Volume I was conceived from the academic experience, this new volume originates from the farming experience.

There are six parts. Part I on sustainability and insurance, is followed by Part II on the shrimp as an animal: functional anatomy, its genome and genetics.

Part III covers production systems: microbial, water and oxygen management, and Part IV feeds and feeding including feeding behaviour and automatic feeders.

The fifth part is on biosecurity covering shrimp response to virus, epigenetic management, new and old pathogens, and disinfectants.

“Finally, there is Part VI on post-harvest issues looking into trade and quality control concerns.”

The Shrimp Book II is addressed to shrimp producers and service providers, researches and students. It brings together academic perspectives and the most recent development in field practices.

Victoria Alday-Sanz has over 35 years’ experience working on diverse aspects of shrimp and fish biosecurity covering understanding of disease process, diagnostics, sanitary legislation, health management, genetics and biosecurity.

“She has often collaborated as an expert for international organizations such as FAO, EU, EFSA and OIE.”

She has published approximately 40 papers in peer-reviewed journals, 70 articles in industry magazines and is the co-author, together with Prof. Tim Flegel, of the CD-ROM Diagnosis of Shrimp Diseases, with an emphasis on Penaeus monodon, and is the editor of The Shrimp Book.

“Currently, she is the Director of Biosecurity and Breeding Programs of NAQUA. Although she started her career in academics, she has spent the last 13 years dedicated to industrial scale production of shrimp and fish.”

This book combines this new perspective with the policy and development experience.

Preface

First and above all, I would like to thank all the readers of The Shrimp Book for their warm welcome of the book that beat all expectations and led to the request to prepare this new volume. I am sure all the 67 contributing authors are joining me in this acknowledgement. 

The dream expectation of an author is to be read, to be listened to, to share, even to be challenged and trigger discussion.  All that was widely achieved.  Thank you.  

“We also thank the reviewers for their kind comments, and we hope they will also be satisfied with this new volume.”

Twelve years have passed since the publication of the first volume. While the content of The Shrimp Book remains valid and useful, I felt a new volume was needed that would capture the developments that have taken place over these years. 

Again, my criteria to define its content was to try to produce the book I would like to have on my shelves, the book I could use as a reference. 

I have spent these twelve years as a “shrimp farmer” at industrial scale and while the first volume was conceptualized from the perspective of my academic years of experience looking into shrimp farming, this new volume is conceived from my farming experience and still looking for the integration of academia and industry. 

“You will be able to see this different perspective particularly in the selection and combination of authors and chapters of The Shrimp Book II. ”  

New generation of authors together with our venerated ones are joining their efforts bringing together new concepts, new knowledge, new technologies and new challenges.  This new volume, The Shrimp Book II is definitely complementary to the first one.

The content is structured in six sections with 27 chapters. A general one on sustainability and insurance, then the shrimp as an animal: functional anatomy, its genome and genetics.

A third section on production systems: microbial, water and oxygen management, then feeds and feeding including feeding behavior and automatic feeders. The fifth section is on biosecurity covering shrimp response to virus, epigenetic management, new and old pathogens and disinfectants. 

“Finally, there is a section on post-harvest issues looking into trade and quality control issues.”

The book is addressed to a diverse readership. Its aim is to be of value to shrimp producers, researchers, service providers and students in any field of shrimp culture and to those involved in the regulation of the industry. 

As a deliberate editorial policy, there has been no attempt to uniformize the structure, the approach or the style of the chapters. The personal backgrounds and experience of the authors is reflected in their text which we hope will bring more immediacy to the reader. 

This level of “freedom” had to be extended to the nomenclature of the white shrimp as some of the authors had strong views on whether Penaeus or Litopenaeus genus should be used, so the reader will find both nomenclatures used along the chapters.

“This book could not have been produced without the inputs from a large number of people around the world.”

I am deeply in depth to the many colleagues that have guided me in the development of the book structure. I am particularly in depth to the authors for their generous effort and dedication particularly during the difficult period of the COVID pandemia and the complications it added to our routine lives. 

I am particularly in debt to 5M who has trusted me with this project and supported throughout the process. Of course, my deepest debt is for those who actually produce shrimp, all those who have patiently taught me over the years and have shared both their deep insight as well as their intuitive knowledge. 

“My admiration for them has continued to bloom.  In these last 12 years, adoption of technology has brought great improvements in production and we have seen the shift in trends, particularly in the West. “

We are now at the edge of a new era of developments thanks to the molecular tools which will provide a completely different level of understanding of the production ecosystems, the shrimp physiology and the pathogens that will open up new approaches, will question the status quo and will pose even more questions.

Finally, the photograph of the cover requires an explanation. This is again a photograph of the great artist Jordi Bernado, one of best photographers of our generation and a troubadour through images.

The photograph reflects the value of the family, the home, the land and the new generations with their defiant attitudes and their overwhelming strength.  Again, this new generation that is bound to question the status quo. Yes, I know… it has no relation with the content of the book… but most of us will agree

Victoria Alday-Sanz

The Shrimp Book II

New Orleans, United States

CONTENTS

 Preface

Author information

 GENERAL

Sustainability in shrimp aquaculture

Lorenzo M. Juarez, Claude E. Boyd, Aaron McNevin, Madeline Craig and Sergio Nantes

Aquaculture insurance

Cesar Real R. Legisima and Jason Scott

THE SHRIMP

Functional morphology of the nephrocomplex

Gaetan M.A. De Gryse and Hans J. Nauwynck

Shrimp gut microbiota and its potential in sustainable aquaculture production

Sopacha Arayamethakorn, Sage Chaiyapechara and Wanilada Rungrassamee

Genome of shrimp and their potential applications

Xiaojun Zhang, Jianbo Yuan, Yuan Yang, Fuhua Li and Jianhai Xiang

Shrimp genetics improvement programs

Hugo Montaldo and Juan Carlos Quintana-Casares

PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

Autotrophic and Heterotrophic Water Treatment in Intensive and Semi-intensive fish Shrimp Culture

Dave Brune

Microbial management: a key concept for sustainable shrimp culture

Peter De Schryver, Olav Vadstein, Tom Defoirdt and Patrick Sorgeloos

Dissolved Oxygen and Aeration in Penaeid Shrimp Aquaculture Ponds

John A Hargreaves and Claude E Boyd

Zero water exchange shrimp production, indoor system evaluation

Manuel Poulin, Barbara Hostins and Francisco Saraiva Gomez

Important water chemistry variables for shrimp production

Katherine Clayton, Robert Ellis, Rod Wilson and Albert Ferrer

FEEDS AND FEEDING

(Sub-editor DA Davis)

Shrimp feeding behavior

Guillermo Bardera, Jean-Benoît Darodes de Tailly, Maria de Fátima Arruda and Cibele Soares Pontes

Feeding practices for automated systems in commercial shrimp production  

Joao Reis, Herbert Quintero and Luke Roy

Mineral requirements of shrimp

Yangen Zhou, Ming Huang and Jian Ge

Nutrition and shrimp health

Wenbing Zhang, Shuoli Ma, Xinxin Li, Yanlin Guo, Huaicheng Ge, Dong Huang, Feiyang Chen, Yanjiao Wu, Keke Lei

BIOSECURITY AND HEALTH MANAGEMENT

Viral accommodation: A new mechanism for disease control in shrimp aquaculture

Timothy W. Flegel

The Progressive Management Pathway for Improving Aquaculture Biosecurity (PMP/AB): Relevance and Potential Application to the Shrimp

Aquaculture Sector

Melba G. Bondad-Reantaso, Brett MacKinnon, Hao Bin, Melissa McLaws  and Huang Jie

Epigenetic management of disease resistance in farmed shrimps

Parisa Norouzitallab, Kartik Baruah, Ronald Lulijwa, Patrick Sorgeloos, Peter Bossier and Daisy Vanrompay

On shrimp pathogen entry: The case of WSSV as a guide to other shrimp pathogens

Gaëtan De Gryse, Mathias Corteel, Cesar Escobedo-Bonilla, Thuong Khuong Van, Peter Bossier, Patrick Sorgeloos and Hans Nauwynck

Whole-Genome Sequencing for Identifying Bacterial Isolates Affecting Local Penaeid Shrimp Farms:  A National Survey for the Philippines

Cynthia Saloma, Sarah Mae U. Penir, Leobert D. de la Pena and Edgar C. Amar

Emerging shrimp diseases and pathogens: Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND), Viral Covert Mortality Disease (VCMD) and Decapod Iridescent Virus 1 (DIV1)

Qingli Zhang, Xuan Dong, Lian Qiu and Huang Jie

The microsporidian, Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei in shrimp culture

Diva January Aldama-Cano, Dominique Wiredu-Boakye, Kwanta Thansa, Anuphap Prachumwat, Suparat Taengchaiyaphum, Ornchuma Itsathiphaisarn, Thawatchai Chaijaraspong, Bryony Williams, Grant Stentiford and Kallaya Sritunyalucksana

Geologically recent shrimp endogenous viral elements (EVE) and their implications for shrimp disease control and trade 

Vanvimon Saksmerprome, Sarocha Jitrakorn, Narong Arunrut, Wansika Kiatpathomchai and Timothy W. Flegel

Disinfectant use in aquaculture, an underappreciated element in biosecurity?

Stephen G. Newman

POST HARVEST ISSUES

(Sub-editor: I Karunasagar)

Global Shrimp Production and Trade

Marcio Castro de Souza, Felix Dent, Fahma Azizah, Dandan Liu and Weiwei Wang

Microbial safety of aquaculture shrimp

Iddya Karunasagar and Indrani Karunasagar

Import notifications and rejections of shrimp

Esther Garrido Gamarro and Loi Guilia

Interested people can purchase the book at the following links:
* El publisher 5M en UK: https://5mbooks.com/product/the-shrimp-book-ii
* Amazon: https://www.amazon.com/Shrimp-Book-Victoria-Alday-Sanz-PhD/dp/1789181046/ref=sr_1_1?crid=RINO62OFYIR4&keywords=the+shrimp+book+ii&qid=1650657193&s=books&sprefix=the+shrimp+book+ii%2Cstripbooks%2C187&sr=1-1
* Walmart en US: https://www.walmart.com/ip/The-Shrimp-Book-II-Hardcover-9781789181043/283830146
* IPG: https://www.ipgbook.com/the-shrimp-book-ii-products-9781789181043.php

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